Posted in Abstract Class, C#, Interface, Object Oriented Programming

C# – Abstract Class vs Interface

Abstract Class Interface
Multiple inheritance Doesn’t support support
Data Member contains Doesn’t contain
Constructor declaration contains Doesn’t contain
Definition May contain definition with no implementation Just a pattern, an empty shell
Methods Can have both abstract & non-abstract methods Can only have abstract methods
Implementation Can contain both definition and its implementation

Incomplete class, cannot be instantiated

Can only have the signature of the functionality without any code
Access Modifier Can have all access modifiers for member declaration of functions, subs and properties. Not allowed (all methods must be implicitly defined as public).

All the members assumed as implicitly public.

Homogeneity is used for implementations of the same type, behavior and status Is used for implementations that share only method signatures
Declaration Acts as a base class for all other classes, can declare/ use any variable Not allowed to declare any variables
Core vs Peripheral Core identity of a class & for objects of the same data type Used to define Peripheral ability of a class
Rigid vs Supple More supple More rigid
Fields definition Predefined fields & constants Fields cannot be defined in interfaces
Posted in Abstract Class, C#, Concrete Class, Object Oriented Programming

Abstract classes vs Concrete Classes


Abstract Class Concrete Class
Type Base class Default class
Methods May contain partially implemented methods All methods are completely implemented
Functions Some or all declared functions are purely virtual No purely virtual functions
Instantiation Cannot be instantiated Can be instantiated

Image Courtesy:,



JSON: JavaScript Object Notation XML: eXtensible Markup Language
data-oriented document-oriented
Types Number, Array, Boolean, String, Object and Null All string
Data JSON Objects are typed XML data is typeless
Simplicity of read/ write shorter & faster, no end tag
Easy to learn
Capability to display No Yes,

capable to display data because it is a markup language

Support array
secured more
Human readable more
Datatype support only text and number text, number, images, charts, graphs etc.

Also, XML offers options for transferring the format/structure of the data with actual data

Parsed by a standard JavaScript function into ready-to-use JavaScript object An XML parser
Posted in ASP .Net, C#, MVC, SQL Server Report Services, SSRS

SSRS (SQL Server Reporting Services)

SSRS is a server side report by Microsoft. I used that to create interactive and printed  reports in my C#, ASP .Net MVC project when I need to have export the report from the view page to a file (PDF or Excel).

I design the reports by using MS Visual Studio 2012 and be able to test the preview of the reports.


It can connect to the MS SQL Server database as a data source



and have the specific data set that can use queries or stored procedures,


calculated fields and parameter values (entries for queries/ stored procedures).


Then the report will be created and we can add table, text box and etc. from the toolbox and design the report like this:


There is an option to edit the page layout and design the report or even have an expression for a specific textbox of the report; for instance if the calculated number is greater than zero make the field green and if it is less than zero make the field background red.


=IIF(VAL(ReportItems!MeetExp.Value) = 0,”No Color”,IIF(VAL(ReportItems!MeetExp.Value) >0,”GREEN”,”RED”))

After all these, we can test the report by preview tab and verify it is working correctly.

There was an issue that in the PDf I had some blank pages; the solution is: modifying the Margins of the report.

In the Design tab of the rdl report, right click on the grey part (outside of the report’s body) then select “Report Properties” and then change the width and Height to a bigger number.


This can fix the problem.


Posted in Data Structure



(Data Definition Language)


(Data Manipulation Language)


(Data Control Language)


(Transaction Control Language)

Create Select Grant Commit
Alter Insert Revoke Savepoint
Drop Update   rollback
Truncate Delete   Set transaction
Comment Merge    
Rename Call    
  Explain plan    
Posted in Core Java, Object Oriented Programming


A class, interface or method that declares one or more type variables (type parameters).


  • Type-Casting
  • Type-Safety (single type of objects)
  • compile-time checking

public Class Box{                                     ——–>              public Class Box<T>{

private Object obj;                                                                              private T t;

public void set (Object obj){                                                             public void set(T t){

this.obj=obj;                                                                                          this.t=t;

}                                                                                                        }

public Object get(){                                                                               public T get(){

return obj;                                                                                              return t;

}                                                                                                           }

}                                                                                                          }

Posted in database, Transaction isolation level

Transaction isolation levels

1 Read Uncommitted The user A start a query, then user B made some changes, A will see the changes have not been committed yet (dirty read)
2 Read committed The user A start a query, user B made some changes and commit. But A will not see the changes made by B.
3 Repeatable Read The user A will not see the changes made by B (insert/delete) read the snapshot established by the first read, so 2 queries executed, with 2 different results (phantom read).
4 Serializable All transactions are completely in isolation fashion, executed serially one after another (lock-based concurrency control).

In Oracle, Repeated Read level is not supported, but in MySQL default isolation level is repeated Read.







Posted in Java EE, JDBC

Statement vs. PreparedStatement in JDBC



for executing static SQL statements execute dynamic queries with parameter inputs
use String Concatenation to create the query and it can’t accept input parameters Use setter methods to set the input parameters for the query
Suitable for DDL  Suitable for DML
Slower Faster
  Prevent SQL Injection attacks
Posted in AOP, Java EE, Spring

AOP Concepts


Joinpoint A specific point in the code, every method in every class is a Joinpoint.
Pointcut A collection of one or more Joinpoints, for example all the methods of a class.
Advice The implementation of crosscutting concern, it means what do I want to do with crosscutting concern (Before, Around, After).
Aspect What crosscutting concern do I execute (=Advice) at which location (=Pointcut); in other words what do I want to do, where do I want to do it in the code. –> advice + pointcut
Weave The advice code together + Target code at corresponding Pointcuts such that we get the correct execution; it means different methods together with right sequence.

And this would be an example how we can write a Pointcut:


Posted in Core Java, Design Pattern, Object Oriented Programming

Singleton Pattern

A Singletone class;

Only one time in JVM per class loader would be instantiated. Same instance would be use for repeated calls.

public class OnlyOne {

            private static OnlyOne one = new OnlyOne();

            // private constructor, so this class cannot be instantiated from outside and prevents


private OnlyOne();

//a global point of access

public static OnlyOne getInstance() {

            return one;



To use it:

OnlyOne myOne = OnlyOne.getInstance();